University of Chicago Library, Goodspeed Manuscript Collection Ms. 931, New Testament. Revelation (Elizabeth Day McCormick Apocalypse). Greg. 2402. Northern Greece or Balkan Peninsula? 17th century.

Contents

Revelation in colloquial Greek. Translated by Maximos the Peloponnesian. A commentary is included based on those of the Caesarean exegetes Andreas and Arethas, and an unidentified interpreter. Formerly Goodspeed Ms. Grk. 37.

Believed to be one of the earliest works of Maximos who is thought to have been an Alexandrian archdeacon. Other known manuscripts of this translation are: 1. Athos, Iviron, Ms. 605 (1601); 2. Athens, National Library, M. 141 (1676); 3. Athos, Panteleemonos, Ms. 556 (18th century).

  1. fol. 1r. Colophon (partially erased): And this [belongs] with the other [books] of Parthenios of Larissa.
  2. fols. 1r-12r Revelation 1 and commentary.
  3. fols. 12v-23v Revelation 2 and commentary.
  4. fols. 24v-35r Revelation 3 and commentary.
  5. fols. 36r-41r Revelation 4 and commentary.
  6. fols. 42r-48r Revelation 5 and commentary.
  7. fols. 48r-61v Revelation 6 and commentary.
  8. fols. 62v-69r Revelation 7 and commentary.
  9. fols. 70r-78r Revelation 8 and commentary.
  10. fols. 79r-85v Revelation 9 and commentary.
  11. fols. 86r-90r Revelation 10 and commentary.
  12. fols. 90r-98v Revelation 11 and commentary.
  13. fols. 98v-107v Revelation 12 and commentary.
  14. fols. 107v-113v Revelation 13 and commentary.
  15. fols. 114v-125r Revelation 14 and commentary.
  16. fols. 126r-128r Revelation 15 and commentary.
  17. fols. 129v-139r Revelation 16 and commentary.
  18. fols. 140r-145v Revelation 17 and commentary.
  19. fols. 146v-151v Revelation 18 and commentary.
  20. fols. 152v-160v Revelation 19 and commentary.
  21. fols. 161v-169r Revelation 20 and commentary.
  22. fols. 169r-181r Revelation 21 and commentary.
  23. fols. 182r-194r Revelation 22 and commentary.

Decoration

Full and half-page miniatures number 69, in the main precede the text illustrated. Reversed sequence of Trumpet I, Fire and hail (fol. 69v) and Seal VII, Trumpets given (fol. 72v) noted in marginal entries.

Miniatures

  1. fol. 4vChrist, Coming in the clouds: Christ descends from heaven at center, encircled by clouds, hand raised in blessing; John holds scroll, seated below at left, a book next to him; a crowd representing earth's inhabitants, at right.
  2. fol. 6vJohn, To the Seven Churches: Christ stands at right next to seven candlestands, holds scroll, and orb with seven stars; John writing, seated on bench at left.
  3. fol. 12rJohn, Letter to Ephesus: Christ stands at right next to branched candlestand, holds scroll, and orb with seven stars; John writing, seated on bench at left; in background, church with altar containing gospel book, chalice, and bread.
  4. fol. 15rJohn, Letter to Smyrna: Christ's voice emanates from heaven, upper left; John stands at center, dictates to the deacon Prochorus who is writing, seated on bench at right.
  5. fol. 17r John, Letter to Pergamum: Christ stands at right, holds double-edged sword, and orb with seven stars; John writing, seated on bench at left; in background, angel stands next to church whose altar contains a gospel book, chalice, and bread.
  6. fol. 19v John, Letter to Thyatira: Christ stands at right next to candlestand, holds scroll, and orb with seven stars; John writing, seated on chair at left; candle lamps in background.
  7. fol. 24rJohn, Letter to Sardis: Christ stands at right, holds representation of saints, and orb with seven stars; John, with scroll, lies on floor at left next to seated angel; church in background.
  8. fol. 27rJohn, Letter to Philadelphia: Christ stands at right with a crown before him, holds key of David, other hand raised in blessing; John carries cross on shoulder, kneels at left next to candlestand; in background, church with gospel book on altar.
  9. fol. 31rJohn, Letter to Laodicea: Christ stands at right, holds double-edged sword and orb; John holds book and quill, seated behind writing desk at left; candlestand and candle lamps in background.
  10. fol. 35vJohn, Vision of open door in Heaven: Christ seated on throne with seraphim, an open book on knee; enthroned twenty-four elders on either side of Christ; below right, John kneels next to heavenly door; angel, at left, points upward, holds door open.
  11. fol. 41vBook of Seven Seals: Christ seated on throne, an open book on knee, surrounded by enthroned twenty-four elders; angel with scroll, upper left, points to Book of Seven Seals on table. John, Weeping with Elder: At right below Christ's throne, John weeps, holds scroll; enthroned elder, gestures at left, displays scroll.
  12. fol. 44rLamb, Taking Book: Christ seated on throne, an open book on knee; four creatures (angel, eagle, ox, and lion) encircle him carrying books; seven-horned Lamb stands over Book of Seven Seals on table, upper left. Lamb, Adoration: John seated below Christ's throne at right, head resting on knees; twenty-four elders kneel at left, their crowns laid on floor.
  13. fol. 48vSeal I, White horse: Seven-horned Lamb stands on throne, opens book's first seal; four creatures (angel, eagle, ox, and lion) encircle him carrying books; crowned rider on white horse below throne, holds bow and arrow; John, with scroll, kneels lower center right.
  14. fol. 51rSeal II, Red horse: Seven-horned Lamb stands on throne, opens book's second seal; four creatures (angel, eagle, ox, and lion) encircle him carrying books; helmeted rider on red horse below throne, wields sword; John seated in cave, lower right.
  15. fol. 52v Seal III, Black horse: Seven-horned Lamb stands on throne, opens book's third seal; four creatures (angel, eagle, ox, and lion) encircle him carrying books; crowned rider on black horse below throne, holds balance; John, with scroll, kneels at right.
  16. fol. 54vSeal IV, Pale horse: Seven-horned Lamb stands on throne, opens book's fourth seal; helmeted rider on pale green horse below throne, carries spear; John kneels at left, an eagle holding a book flies above him.
  17. fol. 56rSeal V, Souls of martyrs: Seven-horned Lamb stands on throne, opens book's fifth seal; martyrs aligned in sanctuary below altar, hold scrolls; John kneels at right; eagle, holding a book, waits at left next to church whose altar contains a gospel book.
  18. fol. 58rSeal VI, Earthquake: Seven-horned Lamb stands on throne, opens book's sixth seal; darkened sun and moon overhead; crowd representing earth's inhabitants kneels in cave at left. John, reads scroll, seated on bench below throne at right; church in background.
  19. fol. 62rWinds, Restrained: At the four corners, angels stand facing winds, hands raised; John holds scroll, kneels at center next to church.
  20. fol. 66vLamb, Adoration by multitude: Crowd representing earth's inhabitants stand before enthroned Seven-horned Lamb, wave flowers and palm branches; a sacrifice burns beneath throne on altar; John holds scroll, kneeling lower right.
  21. fol. 69vTrumpet I, Fire and hail: Angel kneels on mountain, blows trumpet; John kneels in cave, lower left; shower of hail, fire, and blood burns earth's trees and grasses at right.
  22. fol. 72vSeal VII, Trumpets given: Eight angels stand at altar, seven hold trumpets, one swings a censer; John kneeling below the altar.
  23. fol. 74rTrumpet II, Burning mountain: Angel kneels on mountain, blows trumpet; John kneels in cave, lower left; mountain of fire, at right, thrown into sea; water turns to blood.
  24. fol. 75vTrumpet III, Burning star: Angel kneels on cloud, blows trumpet; John, holds scroll, seated in chair, lower left; star falls into rivers and fountains at right; waters embittered.
  25. fol. 77rTrumpet IV, Partial darkness: Angel kneels on cloud, blows trumpet; sun, moon, and stars darkened; people confused about growing seasons and sleep patterns, lower right; John seated on throne next to book, at left.
  26. fol. 78vTrumpet V, Falling star: Angel blows trumpet, upper left; John kneels in cave, lower left; fallen star with a key opens pit from which smoke rises. Trumpet V, Locust plague: Scorpion-like locusts attack earth's inhabitants, at right.
  27. fol. 82rTrumpet VI, Angels at Euphrates: Angel kneels on mountain upper left, blows trumpet; John stands in cave, lower left; four angels wait next to river, at right. Trumpet VI, Horsemen: Troop of riders mounted on fire, smoke, and sulphur-breathing lion-headed horses whose tails of serpent heads inflict wounds.
  28. fol. 85vMighty Angel: John seated in cave, at left; an angel, encircled by cloud and rainbow, stands with its left foot on land, and right foot on the sea, at right.
  29. fol. 88vJohn, Eating book: John kneels, at center, eating a book held by an angel who carries a measuring rod.
  30. fol. 92vWitnesses, Breathing fire: Fire-breathing prophetic witnesses stand at left, hold scrolls; Beast emerges from pit, at right; John, with scroll, kneels on cliff below.
  31. fol. 95rWitnesses, Ascension: Prophetic witnesses killed by the Beast ascend in cloud, upper left; enemies of the witnesses lie dead in city destroyed by earthquake, lower center.
  32. fol. 96vTrumpet VII, Adoration in Heaven: Christ seated on throne, an open book on knee; seraph at right; angel sounds trumpet, upper left; John and twenty-four elders kneel below throne.
  33. fol. 98rWoman, Clothed with Sun: Woman, within flaming mandorla, stands at center on moon wearing crown of stars; Dragon, mouths of seven heads open, lies on ground, at right; child in swaddling clothes, background left; John kneels, lower left.
  34. fol. 102vDragon, Attacked by Michael: Archangel Michael with angel band behind him, upper left, holds trident above seven-headed Dragon and armed demons.
  35. fol. 105rDragon, Persecuting Woman: Woman, crowned and winged, stands at right, hands raised; crowned Dragon with water pouring from mouth, at left; John kneels, lower right.
  36. fol. 107rBeast and Dragon, Worship: First Beast, with seven heads, ten horns, and crowns, emerges from sea, at center; crowned Dragon, background left; worshipers kneel, lower right.
  37. fol. 110vFalse Prophet and Beast: Second Beast, resembling the Lamb (but with only two horns), emerges from the earth, center left; False Prophet marks people with Beast's number, at right; those refusing to worship Beast lie dead, foreground; fire falls near worshipers kneeling before image of Beast, background left.
  38. fol. 114rLamb, Adoration on Mt. Zion: Seven-horned Lamb holds banner emblazoned with cross on mountain, at left; 144,000 followers stand at right, gaze at Lamb; song emanates from heaven, upper left; John kneels in cave, lower left.
  39. fol. 116vAngel I, Everlasting Gospel: At center, angel proclaiming gospel carries book, flies above crowd representing earth's inhabitants.
  40. fol. 117vAngel II, Fall of Babylon: Angel announces Babylon's fall, upper right; John stands in cave at left, points to chalice above him; city in ruins, at right.
  41. fol. 118vAngel III, Beast worshippers: Crowd waits at right; angel, holds scroll, stands at left, tells of consequences for those who worship Beast.
  42. fol. 121vEarth, Harvest: Christ seated on cloud, holds sickle; fields of grain below; angel with scroll, upper left.
  43. fol. 123rEarth, Vintage: Angel with sickle harvests grapes, foreground; blood flows from wine press, at right; angel with scroll stands behind church, background.
  44. fol. 125vAngels, of Plagues: Seven angels stand on mountain, hold vials; John with scroll in cave, lower left. Song, of Moses and Lamb: Those who conquered Beast stand next to sea of glass holding harps.
  45. fol. 129rVial I, Sores: Angel flies over crowd, upper right, empties contents of vial; people with sores on faces lie in street, lower left; buildings, background.
  46. fol. 130rVial II, Sea of blood: Angel flies over sea, upper left, empties contents of vial; dead bodies of people and sea creatures floating, lower right; John seated in cave, left.
  47. fol. 131rVial III, Rivers of blood: Angel flies over rivers and fountains, upper left, empties contents of vial; water turns to blood; John seated in cave, lower left.
  48. fol. 133vVial IV, Scorching heat: Angel flies over sun, upper right, empties contents of vial; crowd gesturing, lower left; John stands in cave, at right.
  49. fol. 134vVial V, Throne of Beast: Angel flies over enthroned Beast, lower right, empties contents of vial causing darkness; followers of Beast kneel in dark at left, gnaw tongues.
  50. fol. 135vVial VI, Euphrates River dries up: Angel flies over river, upper left, empties contents of vial; two kings, one holding a staff, wait on shore, a crowd behind them, at right; John seated in cave, lower right. Vial VI, Frogs: False Prophet, Dragon, and Beast in river, lower left, with frogs emerging from their mouths.
  51. fol. 137rVial VII, Earthquake: Angel flies over city, upper left, empties contents of vial; ruined buildings below; John seated in cave, background right.
  52. fol. 139vScarlet Woman, on Beast: Scarlet Woman holding chalice at center, seated on back of seven-headed Beast with ten horns which walks on water; John sits in cave speaking to angel, background left.
  53. fol. 141vBeast, Going into Perdition: Seven-headed Beast with ten horns walks on water; Scarlet Woman rides on his back, carries chalice; John stands holding angel's hand in cave, background left.
  54. fol. 146rBabylon, Fall: Angel holds staff, stands above city, at left; second angel flies over sea carrying millstone, upper right.
  55. fol. 152rChrist, Praise of Judgment: Christ seated on throne, an open book on knee; seraph at right; hand emerges from heaven holding scroll, upper right; John and twenty-four elders kneel below throne, left; city at right.
  56. fol. 153vLamb, Marriage: Christ, at left, touches linen gown held by Bride at right; angels and crowned wedding guests seated at table set with food and wine, foreground.
  57. fol. 155rChrist, Armies of Heaven: Christ, with chalice and sword, mounted on horse at center, leads troop of angels.
  58. fol. 157vBeast, Battle: Christ mounted on horse, leads troop of angels; flesh of bodies on battlefield pecked by birds, lower left. Beast and False Prophet taken: Beasts and False Prophet imprisoned in Lake of Fire, lower right.
  59. fol. 161rDragon imprisoned: Angel holding key stands in background; Dragon locked in bottomless pit, foreground; John seated in cave, at right.
  60. fol. 162rEnthroned judges: Judges seated on thrones, hands raised gesturing.
  61. fol. 163rFirst Resurrection: Souls of martyrs killed for refusing to worship Beast aligned, upper tier; dead who will come to life after Christ's thousand year reign, lower tier.
  62. fol. 164vSatan, Gog and Magog: Armed kings and Satan lead armies at right; John, holds scroll, seated in cave, at left; city walls in background.
  63. fol. 166vLast Resurrection and Judgment: Christ seated on throne, an open book on knee; a second book laying on table, at left; dead to be judged rise from tombs and from the sea, below throne.
  64. fol. 171rChrist promising New Age: Christ seated on throne, an open book in left hand, his right hand raised in blessing; John, hands raised, kneels at right.
  65. fol. 173rNew Jerusalem measured: Angel, left foreground, hands measuring rod to John standing at right; New Jerusalem's walls in background.
  66. fol. 181vRiver of Life: River flowing under empty throne, from upper right. Tree of Life: Tree covered with fruit and flowers on which peacocks stand, grows next to throne; John, with scroll, kneels at lower right.
  67. fol. 185vJohn and Angel: John, with scroll, seated on chair at left, faces gesturing angel armed with spear.
  68. fol. 186vChrist, Instructing John: Christ, holds scroll, seated on throne at left; an angel waits behind the throne; John, holds scroll, stands at right.
  69. fol. 188vChrist, Promising his reward: Altar, center foreground, contains gospel book, chalice, and bread; Christ holds scroll, upper right; Bride stands behind church, background.

Headpieces

Interlace-patterned headbands in red, or red and black.

Initials

Major initials (25-45 mm) in red, primarily zoomorphic in form.

Comments

Chapter titles derived chiefly from the commentaries of Andreas and Arethas serve also as the titles of most miniatures. Typically, the titles appear either above a miniature or on the leaf directly preceding it (Harold R. Willoughby and Ernest Cadman Colwell, The Elizabeth Day McCormick Apocalypse (Chicago, [c1940]), 2:57-59.

Physical Description

Support

Paper. 216 x 150 mm.

Watermarks

Watermarks similar to Woodward, Three Crescents in a row 144 (Venice ca. 1560); see, David Woodward, Catalogue of watermarks in Italian printed maps, ca. 1540-1600 (Chicago, 1996).

Number of Leaves

198 leaves, of which 4 are flyleaves. Flyleaves conjoint with pastedowns.

Foliation

3 (unfoliated paper flyleaves) + 194 + 1 (unfoliated paper flyleaf). Modern foliation in Arabic numerals in pencil 1-194.

Collation

25 quires of 8 leaves, with the exception of quire 25, which contains 3 leaves. Material lost includes: 1 leaf, quire 17 (between fols. 135 and 136, Revelation 16:12-14 and commentary). Revelation 12:2 (fol. 98v) was left out. Revelation 17:18 was added incorrectly after 17:3, though recorded in place after 17:17 (fol. 140v).

Quire numbers in red or brown on the first leaf of each quire (lower margin). Quires 21 through 24 misnumbered 22-25.

Catchwords

Catchwords throughout.

Dimensions

Written space 161 x 110 mm (fol. 3r).

Layout

1 column, 23 lines.

Writing

Written in minuscule script in black ink (some fading).

Text Divisions

Chapter titles and minor initials in red. Revelation and commentary texts distinguished by the titles κείμενον and έξήγησις in red.

Condition

Water and wax stains. Top margin of leaves trimmed. Some leaves detached from binding.

Binding Description

Bound in brown vegetable tanned goatskin over boards. Added fore-edge clasps (one remaining). Sewing, herringbone pattern over five thin double cords suggestive of traditional Armenian structure.

Blind stamped frame front and back. Front cover: The Crucifixion with the Virgin Mary and John at the foot of the cross; a seated Evangelist depicted at each corner; back cover: Floral motifs enclosed in lozenge, a seated Evangelist depicted at each corner.

History

Origin

Written and illuminated in the first half of the 17th century in either Northern Greece or the Balkan Peninsula. The names of the scribe and the artist are not known.

Provenance

Belonged to Parthenios, a Thessalian Metropolitan of Lárisa, Greece (his colophon, fol. 1r). Belonged also to Elizabeth Day McCormick (1874-1957), who purchased the manuscript ca. 1932 in Paris from an unknown bookseller.

Two unsigned and undated prayers (fol. 194r), the second of which (inscribed inside a circular device) petitions the Trinity to protect the devout reader, the writer, and the owner of this book.

Acquisition

Gift of Elizabeth Day McCormick to the University of Chicago, 1937.

Bibliography

  1. Kenneth W. Clark, A Descriptive Catalogue of Greek New Testament Manuscripts in America (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1937), pp. 126-130.
  2. Harold R. Willoughby and Ernest Cadman Colwell, The Elizabeth Day McCormick Apocalypse (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, [c1940]), vols. 1 and 2.
  3. C. U. Faye and W. H. Bond, Supplement to the Census of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the United States and Canada (New York: Bibliographical Society of America, 1962), p. 162.
  4. Gary Vikan, ed., Illuminated Greek manuscripts from American Collections: an Exhibition in Honor of Kurt Weitzmann (Princeton, N.J:. Art Museum, Princeton University; distributed by Princeton University Press, [1973]), pp. 215-216.
  5. New Testament manuscript traditions. An exhibition based on the Edgar J. Goodspeed collection of the University of Chicago Library, the Joseph Regenstein Library, January-March, 1973. University of Chicago. Library. Dept. of Special Collections. Exhibition catalogs ([Chicago: s.n., 1973]), 36, nos. 55-59.